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Volume 50, 2000, p. 3035

Duane Syndrome (Abstract)
Marla Shainberg, C.O.

Duane syndrome is an eye movement disorder characterized by marked limitation or absence of abduction and variable limitation of adduction in most cases. Characteristics in adduction include globe retraction, palpebral fissure narrowing, and vertical eye movements. Duane syndrome is predominantly found in females, left eyes, and unilaterally.

Clinical findings reviewed include primary position ocular alignment, saccadic velocity, globe retraction, palpebral fissure narrowing, upshooting and downshooting, compensatory head postures, anisometropia, amblyopia, and sensory adaptations. Other points discussed are inheritance patterns, etiology, acquired Duane syndrome, and surgical implications.

The etiology of Duane syndrome is an enigma. Various histopathologic, neurogenic, and embryologic findings are reported in the literature in an effort to explain reasons for the clinical manifestations of this complex syndrome. Electromyography (EMG), electro oculography (EOG), auditory evoked potentials, and autopsy were used to test these theories.

Congenital anomalies related to Duane syndrome include ocular, skeletal, auricular, and neural structures. Duane syndrome and its relationship with Goldenhar, Klippel Feil, Wildervanck, and Okihiro syndromes will also be reviewed.