African Economic History American Orthoptic Journal Arctic Anthropology Constitutional Studies Contemporary Literature Ecological Restoration Ghana Studies Journal of Human Resources Land Economics Landscape Journal Luso-Brazilian Review Monatshefte Native Plants Journal SubStance University of Wisconsin Press Journals
Customer Service
For Libraries
Subscription Agencies

UW Madison

American Association of University Presses


American Orthoptic Journal Abstract

To request a single copy of any journal article, contact us at: 608 263-0654 (voice), or (email). Articles will be photocopied and mailed within two business days. Please prepay with VISA or MasterCard. Articles up to 29 pages in length are priced at $15.00. Articles containing 30 or more pages are priced at $25.00. For article reprints in quantities of 25-500 please use our online reprint ordering system by clicking Reprint Orders.


Volume 43, 1993, p. 7781

Prognosis for Accommodative Esotropia Treated with Bifocals (Abstract)
Susan A. Stewart, D.B.O., C.O., William E. Scott, M.D.


Bifocal glasses are a common form of therapy for accommodative esotropia with a high AC/A ratio. Patients who respond to bifocal therapy show a reduced deviation with fusion, when using the bifocal.


A retrospective study of patients who were initial bifocal responders was undertaken. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (25 patients) were bifocal successes, in whom fusion was maintained over time and the bifocals were discontinued. Group 2 (19 patients) were bifocal failures, in whom fusion was lost, esotropia increased, and surgery was required. The purpose of this paper was to determine patient characteristics that can be used to identify those who may deteriorate and require surgery, and to determine the incidence of deterioration.


A statistically significant difference was found, at the .05 level by the t-test, in the initial refractive error of groups 1 and 2. A statistically significant difference was also found, at the.001 level by the t-test, in the amount of distance deviation at onset of bifocal therapy.