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Volume 43, 1993, p. 135149

Diplopia: Diagnosis and Management (Abstract)
Roger L. Hiatt, M.D.


Diplopia is becoming increasingly important in ophthalmology particularly with trauma as an etiology. This presents a challenge to the ophthalmologist and strabismologist in diagnosis particularly as to the etiology. With the advent of ultrasound, CT scans and other modern modalities, the definitive diagnosis and etiological factors can be elucidated more clearly.


The management of diplopia has become increasingly broad and rewarding and can be listed roughly in five categories: (1) Traditional treatment, (2) Prisms, (3) Oculinum, (4) Adjustable sutures, and (5) Transfer procedures.


This paper will review the major causes, the work-up and management, and the diagnoses and will discuss the management of the separate categories in detail using the various new modalities.