The University of Wisconsin Press



Wombs and Alien Spirits
Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan
Janice Boddy

New Directions in Anthropological Writing

"Wombs and Alien Spirits is a provocative book on women and religion and a valuable addition to the literature on Sudan."—Victoria Bernal, The Middle East Journal

Based on nearly two years of ethnographic fieldwork in a Muslim village in northern Sudan, Wombs and Alien Spirits explores the zâr cult, the most widely practiced traditional healing cult in Africa. Adherents of the cult are usually women with marital or fertility problems, who are possessed by spirits very different from their own proscribed roles as mothers. Through the woman, the spirit makes demands upon her husband and family and makes provocative comments on village issues, such as the increasing influence of formal Islam or encroaching Western economic domination. In accommodating the spirits, the women are able metaphorically to reformulate everyday discourse to portray consciousness of their own subordination.

Janice Boddy examines the moral universe of the village, discussing female circumcision, personhood, kinship, and bodily integrity, then describes the workings of the cult and the effect of possession on the lives of men as well as women. She suggests that spirit possession is a feminist discourse, though a veiled and allegorical one, on women's objectification and subordination. Additionally, the spirit world acts as a foil for village life in the context of rapid historical change and as such provides a focus for cultural resistance that is particularly, though not exclusively, relevant to women.

“Janice Boddy—a professor of anthropology at the University of Toronto—has written a traditional ethnography, complete with kinship diagrams, Arabic terms, and many, many facts. By the end of the book you feel like you know her community of women well.”—The New York Times Book Review

Janice Boddy is associate professor of anthropology at the University of Toronto.

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Cover image is yellow with a black and white image of spirits.

Fall 1989
LC: 89-040250 HQ
421 pp.

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Paper $25.95 x
ISBN 978-0-299-12314-7
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